reforms undertaken since the 1980s made public organisations

“Have reforms undertaken since the 1980s made public organisations genuinely more accountable than they were before that decade, or have they merely changed its forms?”

Project description
please see attached file

Referencing Requirements:
please see attached file. Basic Reading:
1. Flynn N, 2012, Public sector management, 6th edn, London: Sage.

2. Frederickson HG and Smith KB, 2003, The public administration theory primer, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

3. Osborne SP, ed, 2009, The new public governance: emerging perspectives on the theory and practice of public governance, London: Routledge.

4. Peters BG, 2009, The politics of bureaucracy: an introduction to comparative public
administration, 6th edn, London: Routledge.
What makes a good essay?
– Answer the question.
– Think thoroughly and carefully: what exactly is this question asking?
– Do not simply state your opinions or beliefs. Make your argument, explain your
reasoningand substantiate it.
– Provide analysis and show critical thinking, not just description. A précis or summary of
literature on a topic is NOT an answer to a question.
– Define and explain all theoretical concepts used.
– Leave out everything that does not pertain directly to the question (i.e. don’t put in
everything that you know about a topic, only what is relevant to the argument you are
making in answer to the question).
– Use the literature. Embed your answer within existing arguments and positions and
evidence. How does what you want to say relate to what others before you have said? If
your answer is taking one side in a debate, make this clear and identify the opposing view
in the literature and show why you think the arguments put by those whom you are
criticising are weak ones.
– Use case studies or other empirical evidence: You are expected to support your
argument with analysis of empirical cases. Use diagrams and/or statistical tables if they
are essential to supporting the argument.
– Case selection: explain the principles on which you selected the cases (organisations,
industries or fields of services, reform initiatives, countries) you use to illustrate your
argument. If the question asks for a comparison between two or more cases, then show
why the cases chosen are relevant ones for comparative purposes, to answer the
question set.
– Stick to the word limit!
– Structure: introduction, body, conclusion
– Introductory paragraph: announce what you are going to argue.
– 2nd paragraph: structure of the essay.
– Make your points (no more than three); new point, new paragraph.
– Conclude, reiterate your argument and add any further conclusions to your research.
– Use sub-headings to divide up the text.
– Put the essay question on a cover sheet at the beginning.
– Use Garamond or Times New Roman font in 12 point.
– Double space the text and references.
– Referencing can follow either Harvard or Chicago rules, but must be consistent. Two
useful resource on referencing are the following:
– List of references of works actually cited at end (i.e., not a bibliography). Do not include
works that you have not cited.
– Paginate and provide a word count.




reforms undertaken since the 1980s made public organisations