who is responsible for creating a ‘Broken Britain’
Communities, Education and Learning is a module that examines each of those concepts, developing ideas on the issues pertinent to them and exploring in detail the intersecting / overlapping areas.

The module examines the relationship between the state (for example, politicians, police and teachers) and young people. It explores community norms, social identity theory andthe issue of social exclusion. Within this context, what causes and prevents crime and social unrest is debated.

The module also considers the different notions of class, race and inequality, examining concepts such as a welfare dependency,institutional racism, multiculturalism and community cohesion.

There will be opportunities throughout the teaching sessions for students to reflect upon their own communities, identifying and exploring salient issues, applying the theories covered in the module to enable a deeper understanding of the motivations and dynamics of communities.

In the teaching sessions, there will be opportunities to work in discussion groups, contribute during plenary sessions, and debate openly on any issue relevant to the module content.

Assessment takes the form of a 3,500 word essay on a set topic. Tutor support will be available during teaching sessions, at set times during the week and throughout the semester via the Virtual Learning Environment (Moodle) and email.
Learning outcomes

At the end of this Module, you will be able to:


1 Identify the different aspects of community.

2 Understand how social and political trends impact on the relationship of the police and youths.

Thinking skills

3Recognise the historical and socio-cultural background to youth crime and the community based educational initiatives that address these issues.

4 Examine and evaluate the changing conceptions of diversity and multiculturalism in the context of modern communities, policing, and appreciate the emerging practice of community cohesion in this context.
Subject-based practical skills

5 Recognise and apply theoretical ideas in relation to Social Identity Theory.

6 Identify and appraise inclusive and exclusive practices for building relationships between the police and young people.
Skills for life and work (general skills)

7 Record information from a variety of sources including lectures, seminars, texts, internet sources, and observations.

8 Plan for and engage in a written form of assessment.

How the Learning outcomes are assessed

Learning Outcomes

Essay: (3,500 words)

Discuss who is responsible for creating a ‘Broken Britain’
Assessment Requirements in Detail

ESSAY (3,500 words)

Discuss who is responsible for creating a ‘Broken Britain’
Learning Outcomes demonstrated

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Electronic Submission Date: by 10.59 p.m. Friday 4th May 2012

The assessment of your essay will be based on how fully you meet the learning outcomes, as well as standard of presentation which includes accuracy of spelling, grammar and punctuation.

Some suggestions of how you might structure your essay

Your essay should head to a conclusion (final paragraph) that answers the question who is responsible for creating a ‘Broken Britain’

Choices would include:

• It appears the (government/underclass/banks/police/???/????…delete where appropriate) are chiefly responsible for creating a ‘Broken Britain’

• This essay has evidenced that there a number of individuals, organisations and communities that contribute to the creation of a fractured society. For example,……..

• On the one hand, the blame fora dysfunctional and polarised Britain could be placed on the state because…………..however on the other hand, this essay has demonstrated that there are sections of society that…….
To begin your essay you will need to write a short (paragraph) statement of intent. Tell the reader (marker) what topics you aregoing to cover. In other words, start your essay with an introduction that outlines what will follow.

The selection and order of topics would depend on how you are going to answer the question and that in turn depends on which theories you are most convinced by.

It would make sense however to have as an opening topic – What is meant by ‘Broken Britain’
Who, for example, allegedly first coined the phrase?
What does it represent? A cultural divide; a moral decline or increasing Inequality?
When did this expression come into common use?
Do the textbooks, media, the politicians and public all agree on its existence and who is to blame?
Could it be a social construct (made up term) or a label (to scapegoat parts of society)?

You MAY want to discuss ‘Broken Britain’ from the following perspectives:

What communities are generally thought to be to blame for a dysfunctional and polarised Britain?

Is it for example: Youths, poor people, welfare dependents, black males, immigrants, refugees, white ‘chavs’ , gangs, single parents……. ?

Do these groups make up an underclass or are these communities being demonised?

Is it also possible that communities such as older rich white people from the ruling class (e.g. government and bankers) might in their own way be responsible for a Broken Britain? Also, what about the media, the police or even teachers?
Do notmake the mistake of ONLY writing a simple description of different types of behaviours that evidence a Broken Britain, for example gang culture, rioting, looting, knife carrying, drug taking, binge drinking, and benefit fraud or listing the different strategies such as ASBOs , back to work programmes and benefit cuts that have all been tried to inhibit these phenomenon. Although all these topics are relevant, in academia, describing or listing ‘stuff’ is rarely the best way to accumulate marks.
As with most academic essays the markers are looking for critical analysis. This means you have to attempt to explain the concept of a Broken Britainwith the help of literature and theories (i.e. other author’s ideas).


Useful theories to refer to and explain are(in no particular order):

Moral Underclass Discource (MUD) theory – is there a new and growing breed of unemployable young people with no morals?
Social Exclusion Theory – are certain estates and neighbourhoods consistently disadvantaged?
Critical Race Theory – can the notion of a Broken Society be explained by issues of race – for example racist policing, ethnic disadvantage, institutional racism in schools, the police and the media?
Sub-cultural Theory – is for example: Gang culture, knife carrying, drug taking, binge drinking, and benefit fraud;‘tribal behaviour’?
Social Identity Theory (SIT) – If Broken Britain represents a cultural divide who are the in groups and out groups, the rival factions, them and us?
Left / Right wing realism – For example, The Daily Mail will typically give a sensationalist right wing point of view, such as ‘the kids of today have gone wild’, whereas The Guardian might offer a more thoroughly evidenced left wing perspective, that somehow the government’s is to blame for everything and wish to demonise the poor so the politicians do not get held to account for issues of injustice and inequality.
Criminological, Labelling and Deviance Theories – what matters? Is it where you live, your class your values, the brutality or softness of the youth justice system or is it that terms such as ‘Broken Britain’, ‘anti-social behaviour’ ‘chavs’ and ‘strivers and skivers’are simply social constructs (terms invented to suit the establishment)?Do people behave in the way that is expected of them? Is one person’s norm another’s nightmare?
Broken Window Theory–what is a common reaction to an uncared for environment, a disinterested police or an opportunity for ‘mischief’?
Community Cohesion Theories – what can be or has been done to get societies to function in a more unified, ‘sociable’ and cohesive way? Should what it is to be British be defined, taught and tested?
Multiculturalism – Should diversity on the other hand be celebrated, welcomed and encouraged or does this risk creating conflict, segregated values and ghettos?
Participation Theories– do young people and communities need a greater stake in society?
Social Education Theory– can community or informal education help build relationships?
Community Theories– can communities even be defined?



who is responsible for creating a ‘Broken Britain’